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[综合] 双语阅读/为什么越来越多的中国年轻人想考公务员?

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发表于 2021-6-29 08:45:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
双语阅读/为什么越来越多的中国年轻人想考公务员?

来自《经济学人》

Why more young Chinese want to be civil servants


When Zhu Ling graduated last year from a highly competitive master’s programme at one of China’s best universities, prestigious, well-paid jobs were hers for the taking. Instead she chose to become a civil servant for the central government, earning 6,000 yuan ($930) a month, or less than some Beijing professionals spend on gym membership.


A decade ago, Miss Zhu (not her real name) might have joined a multinational firm. They pay well, and it was “cool to work for foreign companies, because that shows your international horizons, and you can travel all over the world”, she says over cappuccino at an outdoor cafe in Beijing.


Five years ago, top graduates vied to join home-grown technology giants like Alibaba, Tencent or Huawei. In addition to high salaries, such firms had free-thinking cultures and seemed to respect young people, she explains.


Today, the trends are changing again. China still wants foreign businesses for their know-how and dynamism, but their status “is definitely going down”, says Miss Zhu. Geopolitical distrust is bleeding into work relations.


Chinese employed by foreigners have noticed that they never advance beyond middle management and are the first to be laid off in bad times, she claims. As for domestic technology firms, their high salaries continue to attract the young.


But they also face vocal criticism in Chinese media for domineering business practices and the “996” work schedules of their staff, toiling from at least 9am to 9pm, six days a week. In all, a third of Miss Zhu’s classmates took civil-service examinations. Some were hired by state-owned banks. Three joined technology companies. None joined a foreign firm.


Chinese refer to securing an official position as shang an, or “landing ashore”, reflecting the security such jobs offer. In 2020, 1.6m people passed background checks to take national civil-service exams, 140,000 more than the year before.


Almost a million candidates eventually sat the exam, chasing 25,700 jobs. Still more took tests to become provincial and local officials. Many were fleeing a bleak market for new graduates, as covid-19 hit private firms.


Miss Zhu says she joined an elite government ministry in search of meaningful work. She will soon spend two years as an official in a remote rural area, saying: “If you want to become a good policymaker, you have to go to the grassroots level.” A decade ago her parents would not have wanted her to join the public sector, she thinks.


They distrusted officials, who routinely shook them down for bribes. Back then they would also have worried about her prospects as someone with no family guanxi, or connections: her grandfather was a farmer and her parents run a small business. She credits an anti-corruption drive that began in 2012 with changing their views of officialdom.


OffCN, an adult-education business, prepares millions of students each year for public-sector exams. It grew fast during the pandemic. “Training centres rose like bamboo shoots after rain,” says an OffCN manager in Beijing. He once looked down on civil-service jobs. Now he regrets missing the age limit—typically 35—for joining many government departments.


参考译文:


为什么越来越多的中国年轻人想考公务员
去年,朱玲从一所中国顶尖大学之一里竞争最激烈的专业硕士毕业,她本可以轻松找到一份兼具声望和高薪的工作。然而却选择成为一名中央政府的公务员,每月6000元(约合930美元)的收入甚至还不够一些北京从业者支付健身房的会员费。


如果是10年前,朱玲(化名)可能会加入一家跨国公司。在北京一家室外咖啡馆,她一边喝着卡布奇诺一边说:“在外企工作很酷,因为这表明你有着国际视野,可以世界各地旅行。”


如果是5年前,顶尖高校的毕业生会竞相加入阿里巴巴、腾讯或华为等本土科技巨头。她解释称,这些公司除了能够提供高薪,还有着自由思想的文化,而且似乎更尊重年轻人。


今天,就业趋势再次发生了变化。朱玲表示,中国仍然需要外企的技术和活力,但它们的地位“肯定在下降”。地缘政治上的不信任正渗透到工作关系中。


她表示,就职于外企的中国人会发现,他们绝不会晋升至公司中层管理级别以上,而在经济不景气时,他们也会最先被裁员。至于说国内的科技公司,他们提供的高薪继续吸引着年轻人。


但这些公司也因专横的商业行为和员工的“996”工作时间表(即每天从早上9点工作到晚上9点,每周工作6天)而受到了中国媒体尖锐的批评。在朱玲的同学中,有三分之一的人都参加了公务员考试,一些人就职于国有银行,3个人就职于科技公司,没有人就职于外企。


中国人把成功考上公务员称为“上岸”,这个词反映了该工作所提供的安全感。2020年,160万人通过背景调查报名参加国家公务员考试,相比前一年增加了14万人。


最终有近100万考生参加考试,竞争2.57万个岗位。还有更多的人参加了省级和地方公务员考试。随着新冠肺炎疫情对私营企业的冲击,许多人逃离了惨淡的应届毕业生市场。


朱玲说,她加入政府精英部门的目的是为了去找一份有意义的工作。她很快将在一个偏远农村地区担任官员两年,他说:“如果你想成为一个优秀的政策制定者,你必须前往基层历练。”她认为,如果在十年前,她的父母肯定不会希望她加入公共部门。


他们对官员缺乏信任,因为官员们经常为了索贿而欺压百姓。那会,作为一个没有家庭背景或人脉的人,父母还会担心她的前景:她的祖父是农民,她的父母经营着小生意。她认为始于2012年的反腐败运动改变了人们对官场的看法。


成人教育公司中公每年辅导数百万考生参加公务员考试。该公司在疫情大流行期间迅速壮大。中公教育北京地区的一位经理表示:“培训机构如雨后春笋般涌现。”他曾经瞧不起公务员的工作。现在,他后悔自己已经超过了35岁——大部分公务员岗位的年龄限制。


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